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In the early stages of Greek, as of every other, civilization, the boundary line between philosophy and other departments of human knowledge was not sharply defined, and philosophy was understood to mean "every striving towards knowledge ".This sense of the word survives in Herodotus (I, xxx) and Thucydides (II, xl). In its proper acceptation, philosophy does not mean the aggregate of the human sciences, but "the general science of things in the universe by their ultimate determinations and reasons"; or again, "the intimate knowledge of the causes and reasons of things", the profound knowledge of the universal order.
Practical philosophy comprises ethics, economics, and politics, the second of these three often merging into the last.
This classification was perpetuated by the neo-Platonists, who transmitted it to the Fathers of the Church , and through them to the Middle Ages.
(2) Aristotle, Plato's illustrious disciple, the most didactic, and at the same time the most synthetic, mind of the Greek world, drew up a remarkable scheme of the divisions of philosophy.
(1) Plato divides philosophy into dialectic, physics, and ethics.
This division is not found in Plato's own writings, and it would be impossible to fit his dialogues into the triple frame, but it corresponds to the spirit of the Platonic philosophy. C.) his disciple, and the leading representative of the Old Academy, was the first to adopt this triadic division, which was destined to go down through the ages ( Grundriss d. griechischen Philosophie , 144), and Aristotle follows it in dividing his master's philosophy.
Plato's classification was taken up by his school (the Academy), but it was not long in yielding to the influence of Aristotle's more complete division and according a place to logic.
Following the inspirations of the old Academics, the Stoics divided philosophy into physics (the study of the real), logic (the study of the structure of science ) and morals (the study of moral acts).The last Why of all rests upon all that is and all that becomes: it does not apply, as in any one particular science (e.g.chemistry), to this or that process of becoming, or to this or that being (e.g.philosophy] is the science which considers first and universal causes; wisdom considers the first causes of all causes" (In Metaph. Descartes regards philosophy as wisdom: "Philosophiae voce sapientiae studium denotamus" -- "By the term philosophy we denote the pursuit of wisdom" ( Princ. , preface); and he understands by it "cognitio veritatis per primas suas causas" -- " knowledge of truth by its first causes" (ibid.). This idea of philosophy as the ultimate science of values (Wert lehre) is emphasized by Windelband, Déring, and others.For Locke, philosophy is the true knowledge of things; for Berkeley, "the study of wisdom and truth " ( Princ. The many conceptions of philosophy given by Kant reduce it to that of a science of the general principles of knowledge and of the ultimate objects attainable by knowledge -- "Wissenschaft von den letzten Zwecken der menschlichen Vernunft". The list of conceptions and definitions might be indefinitely prolonged.the combination of two bodies), but to all being and all becoming.