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The sourdough tradition was carried into Alaska and the western Canadian territories during the Klondike Gold Rush of 1898.
However, freezing does not kill a sourdough starter; excessive heat does.Refreshment intervals of longer than three days acidify the dough and may change the microbial ecosystem.Generally, if once-daily refreshment-intervals have not been reduced to several hours, the percentage amount of starter in the final dough should be reduced to obtain a satisfactory rise during proof. One is made from traditionally maintained and stable starter doughs, often dried, in which the ratios of micro-organisms are uncertain.Old hands came to be called "sourdoughs", a term that is still applied to any Alaskan or Klondike old-timer.The significance of the nickname's association with Yukon culture was immortalized in the writings of Robert Service, particularly his collection of "Songs of a Sourdough".Bread production relied on the use of sourdough as a leavening agent for most of human history; the use of baker's yeast as a leavening agent dates back less than 150 years." until being replaced by barm from the beer brewing process, and then later purpose-cultured yeast.
Bread made from 100% rye flour, popular in the northern half of Europe, is usually leavened with sourdough.
The preparation of sourdough begins with a pre-ferment (the "starter" or "leaven", also known as the "chief", "chef", "head", "mother" or "sponge"), a fermented mixture of flour and water, containing a colony of microorganisms including wild yeast and lactobacilli.
The purpose of the starter is to produce a vigorous leaven and to develop the flavour of the bread.
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Sourdough bread is made by the fermentation of dough using naturally occurring lactobacilli and yeast.
Baker's yeast is not useful as a leavening agent for rye bread, as rye does not contain enough gluten.